Cardiomyopathy is basically a progressive disease of the myocardium, or heart muscle. In most situations, the heart muscle weakens and is not able to pump blood to the rest of the body as well as it should. There are many different kinds of cardiomyopathy caused by a range of factors, from coronary heart disease to certain drugs. These can all result to an irregular hearbeat,heart failure,heart valve problem and or other complications.
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Medical treatment and follow-up care are very essential. They can help prevent heart failure or other complications.
What are types of cardiomyopathy?
Cardiomyopathy generally has four types.
The most common form, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), happens when your heart muscle is too weak to pump blood efficiently. The muscles stretch and get thinner. This lets the chambers of your heart to expand.
This is also referred to as enlarged heart. You can inherit it, or it can be due to coronary artery disease.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is thought to be genetic. It happens when your heart walls thicken and keep blood from flowing through your heart. It’s a fairly common type of cardiomyopathy. It can also be created by long-term high blood pressure or aging. Diabetes or thyroid disease can also cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There are other situations that the cause is unknown.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD)
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a very rare type of cardiomyopathy, but it’s the leading cause of sudden death in young athletes. In this kind of genetic cardiomyopathy, fat and extra fibrous tissue replace the muscle of the right ventricle. This creates abnormal heart rhythms.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common form. It happens when the ventricles stiffen and can’t relax enough to fill up with blood. Scarring of the heart, which frequently happens after a heart transplant, may be a cause. It can also happen as a result of heart disease.
Most of the following classes of cardiomyopathy belong to one of the previous four classifications, but each has unique causes or complications.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy happens during or after pregnancy. This rare type happens when the heart weakens within five months of delivery or within the final month of pregnancy. When it happen after delivery, it’s sometimes called postpartum cardiomyopathy. This is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy, and it’s a life-threatening condition. There’s no reason.
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is because of drinking too much alcohol over a long period of time, which can weaken your heart so it can no longer pump blood effectively. Your heart then becomes enlarged. This is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy.
Ischemic cardiomyopathy happens when your heart can no longer pump blood to the rest of your body because of coronary artery disease. Blood vessels to the heart muscle narrow and become blocked. This keeps the heart muscle off oxygen. Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a common cause of heart failure. Alternatively, nonischemic cardiomyopathy is any form that is not related to coronary artery disease.
Noncompaction cardiomyopathy, also known as spongiform cardiomyopathy, is a rare disease present at birth. It results from abnormal development of the heart muscle in the womb. Diagnosis may happen at any stage of life.
When cardiomyopathy affects a child, it’s called pediatric cardiomyopathy.
If you have idiopathic cardiomyopathy, it means there’s no known causative reason.
Who is at risk for cardiomyopathy?
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Cardiomyopathy can affect people of all ages. Major risk factors are inclusive of the following:
• a family history of cardiomyopathy, sudden cardiac arrest, or heart failure
• coronary heart disease
• severe obesity
• Heart Attack
• long-term high blood pressure
• According to a research,HIV and its treatments, and dietary and lifestyle factors can also increase your risk of cardiomyopathy. HIV can increase your risk of heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy, in particular. If you have HIV, talk to your doctor about regular tests to check the health of your heart. You should also follow a heart-healthy diet and exercise program.
What are the symptoms of cardiomyopathy?
The symptoms of all types of cardiomyopathy seem to be similar. In all cases, the heart can’t adequately pump blood to the tissues and organs of the body. It can lead to symptoms such as:
• general weakness and fatigue
• shortness of breath, particularly during exertion or exercise
• lightheadedness and dizziness
• chest pain
• heart palpitations
• fainting attacks
• high blood pressure
• edema, or swelling, of your feet, ankles, and legs
What is the treatment for cardiomyopathy?
Treatment differs depending on how damaged your heart is due to cardiomyopathy and the resulting symptoms.
Some people may not need treatment until symptoms appear. Others who are beginning to struggle with breathlessness or chest pain may need to make some lifestyle adjustments or take medications.
You can’t reverse or cure cardiomyopathy, but you can control it with some of the following options:
• heart-healthy lifestyle changes
• medications, including those used to treat high blood pressure, keep water retention, keep the heart beating with a normal rhythm, prevent blood clots, and reduce inflammation
• surgically implanted devices, like pacemakers and defibrillators
• heart transplant, which is usually a last resort
The goal of treatment is to help your heart be as efficient as possible and to stop further damage and loss of function.
What is the long-term outlook?
Cardiomyopathy can be life-threatening and can shorten your life expectancy if severe damage happens early on. The disease is also progressive, which means it tends to get worse over time. Treatments can prolong your life. They can do this by reducing the decline of your heart’s condition or by providing technologies to help your heart do its job.
Those with cardiomyopathy should make several lifestyle adjustments to improve heart health. These may include:
• maintaining a healthy weight
• eating a modified diet
• limiting caffeine intake
• getting enough sleep
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• managing stress
• quitting smoking
• limiting alcohol intake
• getting support from their family, friends, and doctor
One of the biggest challenges is sticking with a regular exercise program. Exercise can be very tiring for someone with a damaged heart. However, exercise is extremely vital for maintaining a healthy weight and prolonging heart function. It’s vital to check with your doctor and engage in a regular exercise program that’s not too taxing but that gets you moving every day.
The type of exercise that’s best for you will always depend on the type of cardiomyopathy you have. Your doctor will help you determine an appropriate exercise routine, and they’ll tell you the warning signs to watch out for while exercising.