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WHAT IS ANOREXIA NERVOSA

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Anorexia nervosa is actually an eating disorder and a serious mental health condition.

People with anorexia have issues with eating. They are very anxious about their weight and keep it as low as possible by strictly controlling and reducing what they eat. Many people with anorexia will also exercise excessively to lose weight.

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It is felt that people with anorexia are so concerned about their weight because they:

  • feel they are fat or overweight
  • have a strong fear of being fat
  • want to be thin

Even when a person with anorexia gets extremely underweight, they still feel compelled to lose more weight.

Though people with anorexia stay away from eating food whenever they can, they also begin having an obsession with eating and diet. For example, they may obsessively count the calories in different types of foods even though they have no intention of actually eating it.

Some people with anorexia will equally binge eat, i.e. they eat a lot of food in a short space of time. They then try to get rid of the food from their body by vomiting or using laxatives (medication that makes the bowels to empty; normally used for the treatment of constipation.)

The symptoms of anorexia usually starts gradually, such as adopting a restrictive diet. They then often spiral out of control quickly.

How common is anorexia?

Irrespective of being an uncommon condition, anorexia is the leading cause of mental health-related deaths.

Most conditions of anorexia develop in girls and women. One in every 200 women is affected. Symptoms of anorexia usually first start during the teenage years, at the average age of 15. But the condition can develop at any time, including childhood.

Anorexia equally affects 1 in every 2,000 men. Some experts are concerned that the number of men with the condition may be increasing.

The cause of anorexia is unknown, but most experts feel the condition results from a combination of biological, psychological and environmental factors

The long-term malnutrition linked with anorexia can cause a range of serious complications, such as:

  • osteoporosis (weakening of the bones)
  • kidney disease
  • heart failure

Outlook

One of the biggest challenges in treatment anorexia is that it is a condition characterised by self-denial. Many people with anorexia refuse to accept, or are unable to grasp, that there is anything wrong with them or their behaviour.

If the person is persuaded to seek assistance, it usually takes five to six years of treatment before they make a complete recovery, and relapses are common.

Treatment for anorexia usually involves talking therapies, such as cognitive behavioural therapy, which target to change the person’s attitudes and behaviour. Nutritional support is also offered to help them gain weight safely.

Around 20-30% of people with anorexia do not respond to treatment, and around 5% will die from complications produced by malnutrition.

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