Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioural signs that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness.

Symptoms of ADHD tend to be seen at an early age and may become more noticeable when a child’s circumstances change, such as when they begin school. Most cases are diagnosed when children are 6 to 12 years old.


The symptoms of ADHD usually improve with age, but many adults who are diagnosed with the condition at a young age continue to notice problems.

People with ADHD may also have additional issues, such as sleep and anxiety disorders.

Getting help

Many children pass through phases where they’re restless or inattentive. This is often completely normal and does not necessarily mean they have ADHD.

However, you should consider raising your worries with your child’s teacher, their school’s special educational needs co-ordinator (SENCO) or caregiver if you think their behaviour may be different to most children their age.

It’s also a good idea to speak to your caregiver if you’re an adult and you think you may have ADHD, but you weren’t diagnosed with the condition as a child.

What are the causes ADHD?

The exact cause of ADHD is unknown, but the condition has been observed to run in families. Research has also identified a number of possible differences in the brains of people with ADHD compared to those who don’t have the condition.

Other factors that have been suggested as potentially having a role in ADHD include:

  • being born prematurely (before the 37th week of pregnancy)
  • having a low birthweight
  • smoking, alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy

ADHD is more common in boys than girls. It’s estimated that around 2% to 5% of school-aged children may have the condition.

ADHD can happen in people of any intellectual ability, although it’s more common in people with learning difficulties.

How ADHD is treated

Although there’s no cure for ADHD, it can be managed with appropriate educational support, advice and support for parents and affected children, alongside medication, if necessary.

Medication is often the first treatment administered to adults with ADHD, although psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) may also help.

Living with ADHD

Looking after a child with ADHD can be daunting, but it’s important to remember that they can’t help their behaviour.

Some issues that may arise in day-to-day life include:

  • getting your child to sleep at night
  • getting ready for school on time
  • listening to and carrying out instructions
  • being organised
  • social occasions
  • shopping

Adults with ADHD may also find they have similar problems, and some may have issues with drugs, crime and employment.


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