Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a medical condition that affects social interaction, communication, interests and behaviour.

In children with ASD, the symptoms are observed before three years of age, although a diagnosis can sometimes be made after the age of three.

It’s suggested that about 1 in every 100 people in the UK has ASD. More boys are diagnosed with the condition than girls.


There’s no “cure” for ASD, but speech and language therapy, occupational therapy, educational support, plus a number of other interventions are offered to help children and parents.

Signs and symptoms

People with ASD tend to have issues with social interaction and communication.

In early infancy, some children with ASD do not babble or use other vocal sounds. Older children have issues using non-verbal behaviours to interact with others – for example, they have difficulty with eye contact, facial expressions, body language and gestures. They may give no or brief eye contact and ignore familiar or unfamiliar people.

Children with ASD may also not have awareness of and interest in other children. They’ll often either gravitate to older or younger children, rather than interacting with children of the same age. They seem to play alone.

They can find it difficult to understand other people’s emotions and feelings, and have difficulty beginning conversations or taking part in them properly. Language development may be delayed, and a child with ASD won’t compensate their lack of language or delayed language skills by using gestures (body language) or facial expressions.

Children with ASD will seem to repeat words or phrases spoken by others (either immediately or later) without formulating their own language, or in parallel to developing their language skills. Some children do not demonstrate imaginative or pretend play, while others will continually repeat the same pretend play.

Some children with ASD like to stick to the same routine and little changes may trigger tantrums. Some children may flap their hand or twist or flick their fingers when they’re excited or upset. Others may engage in repetitive activity, such as turning light switches on and off, opening and closing doors, or lining things up.

Children and young people with ASD frequently notice a range of cognitive (thinking), learning, emotional and behavioural problems. For example, they may also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or depression.

About 70% of children with ASD have a non-verbal IQ below 70. Of these, 50% have a non-verbal IQ below 50. Overall, up to 50% of people with “severe learning challenges” have an ASD.

Getting a diagnosis

The main features of ASD – issues with social communication and interaction – can often be recognised during early childhood.

Some features of ASD may not get noticeable until a change of situation, such as when the child starts nursery or school.

See your caregiver or health visitor if you notice any of the signs and symptoms of ASD in your child, or if you’re concerned about your child’s development. It can also be helpful to discuss your concerns with your child’s nursery or school.

Caring for someone with ASD

Being a carer is not an easy role. When you’re busy responding to the needs of others, it can affect your emotional and physical energy, and make it easy to forget your own health and mental wellbeing.

If you’re caring for someone else, it’s vital to look after yourself and get as much help as possible. It’s in your best interests and those of the person you care for.

What are the causes ASD?

The exact cause of ASD is yet unknown, but it’s thought that several complex genetic and environmental factors are involved.

In the past, some people thought the MMR vaccine caused ASD, but this has been investigated extensively in a number of major studies around the world, involving millions of children, and researchers have discovered no evidence of a link between MMR and ASD.

Autism in adults

Some people with ASD had features of the medical condition as a child, but enter adulthood without ever being diagnosed.

However, getting a diagnosis as an adult can often assist a person with ASD and their families understand the condition, and work out what type of advice and support they need.

For example, a number of autism-specific services are offered that provide adults with ASD with the help and support they need to live independently and find a job that matches their skills and abilities.

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